Ecco per voi una raccolta di studi scientifici a sostegno di molte cose scritte su questo Blog e sulle mie pagine Facebook e Twitter. Quando vi chiedono le fonti di qualcosa che state dicendo, potete venire su questa pagina, dove potreste trovare quello che fa al caso vostro e fare un bel copia e incolla. Questo post e' in costante aggiornamento, quindi tenetelo d'occhio! Potete dare un'occhiata anche alla mia raccolta di articoli pro-carne. E non dimenticate mai di chiedere anche voi le fonti quando siete nel bel mezzo di una discussione. E mi raccomando, devono essere scientifiche, cioe' devono essere pubblicate su PubMed. Tutto il resto e' fuffa.
Privarsi di proteine animali significa ridurre il quantitativo di zinco e vitamina B12. Per questo i vegani possono sviluppare patologie cardiache e vascolari.
FONTE: 1.Duo Li. Chemistry behind Vegetarianism. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2011; 110104095843036 DOI: 10.1021/jf103846u
Predisposizione all'ictus come conseguenza di un regime dietetico estremamente povero di grassi; in particolare di quelli saturi.
FONTE: "There is good reason to suspect that low-fat vegan diets tend to down-regulate systemic IGF-I activity; this effect would be expected to increase stroke risk in vegans. Furthermore, epidemiology suggests that low serum cholesterol, and possibly also a low dietary intake of saturated fat--both characteristic of those adopting low-fat vegan diets--may also increase stroke risk. "
"Colinearity between red meat intake and other dietary factors (e.g. Western lifestyle, high intake of refined sugars and alcohol, low intake of fruits, vegetables and fibre) and behavioural factors (e.g. low physical activity, high smoking prevalence, high body mass index) limit the ability to analytically isolate the independent effects of red meat consumption. Because of these factors, the currently available epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to support an independent positive association between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer."
Mortality in British vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Roddam AW, Allen NE. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1613S-1619S. Epub 2009 Mar 18.
–Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians. Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):131-6.
-Homocysteine level and coronary heart disease incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Humphrey LL, Fu R, Rogers K, Freeman M, Helfand M. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Nov;83(11):1203-12.
–Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with coronary artery disease in an Indian population. Kumar J, Garg G, Sundaramoorthy E, Prasad PV, Karthikeyan G, Ramakrishnan L, Ghosh S, Sengupta S. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(3):334-8.
Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. Werder SF Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2010 May 6;6:159-95.
Effect of folate and mecobalamin on hip fractures in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Sato Y, Honda Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, Satoh K. JAMA. 2005 Mar 2;293(9):1082-8. Erratum in: JAMA. 2006 Jul 26;296(4):396.
Homocysteine concentrations in follicular fluid are associated with poor oocyte and embryo qualities in polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing assisted reproduction. Berker B, Kaya C, Aytac R, Satiroglu H. Hum Reprod. 2009 Sep;24(9):2293-302. Epub 2009 May 14.
International estimates of infertility prevalence and treatment-seeking: potential need and demand for infertility medical care. Boivin J, Bunting L, Collins JA, Nygren KG. Hum Reprod. 2007 Jun;22(6):1506-12. Epub 2007 Mar 21. Erratum in: Hum Reprod. 2007 Oct;22(10):2800.
Dieting influences the menstrual cycle: vegetarian versus nonvegetarian diet. Pirke KM, Schweiger U, Laessle R, Dickhaut B, Schweiger M, Waechtler M. Fertil Steril. 1986 Dec;46(6):1083-8.
alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Brenna JT, Salem N Jr, Sinclair AJ, Cunnane SC; International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, ISSFAL.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Feb-Mar;80(2-3):85-91. Epub 2009 Mar 9. Review.
B-vitamins and prevention of dementia. Clarke R. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 Feb;67(1):75-81.
Assessment of iron deficiency in US preschool children and nonpregnant females of childbearing age: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.
Cogswell ME, Looker AC, Pfeiffer CM, Cook JD, Lacher DA, Beard JL, Lynch SR, Grummer-Strawn LM. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1334-42. Epub 2009 Apr 8.
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Feb;14(2):340-6. Epub 2010 Sep 21. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study. Crowe FL, Steur M, Allen NE, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Key TJ.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009 Mar;127(3):228-33. Epub 2008 Oct 25. Zinc and selenium nutritional status in vegetarians. de Bortoli MC, Cozzolino SM.
Int J Androl. 2006 Apr;29(2):339-45. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men? Ebisch IM, Pierik FH, DE Jong FH, Thomas CM, Steegers-Theunissen RP.
Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutrition. Remer T, Neubert A, Manz F. Br J Nutr. 1999 Jan;81(1):45-9.
Iron supplementation maintains ventilatory threshold and improves energetic efficiency in iron-deficient nonanemic athletes. Hinton PS, Sinclair LM. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;61(1):30-9. Epub 2006 Jul 12.
Nutr J. 2010 Jan 25;9:4. The effects of oral iron supplementation on cognition in older children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Falkingham M, Abdelhamid A, Curtis P, Fairweather-Tait S, Dye L, Hooper L.
Zinc status of vegetarians. Freeland-Graves JH, Bodzy PW, Eppright MA. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980 Dec;77(6):655-61.
Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen TV. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct;90(4):943-50. Epub 2009 Jul 1.
Public Health Nutr. 2006 Sep;9(6):779-84. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 and concentration of vitamin B6 in blood samples of German vegans. Waldmann A, Dörr B, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A.
Vegetarians exhibit a wide diversity of dietary practices, often described by what is omitted from their diet. When a vegetarian diet is appropriately planned and includes fortified foods, it can be nutritionally adequate for adults and children and can promote health and lower the risk of major chronic diseases. The nutrients of concern in the diet of vegetarians include vitamin B(12), vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc. Although a vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients, the use of supplements and fortified foods provides a useful shield against deficiency. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec;25(6):613-20. doi: 10.1177/0884533610385707.
Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Craig WJ1.
Vegan or vegetarian diets in healthy pregnant women. The nine heterogeneous studies on microelements and vitamins suggest vegan-vegetarian women may be at risk of vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies.
AUTHOR'S CONCLUSIONS: Within these limits, vegan-vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements.
BJOG. 2015 Apr;122(5):623-33. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.13280. Epub 2015 Jan 20.
Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review. Piccoli GB1, Clari R, Vigotti FN, Leone F, Attini R, Cabiddu G, Mauro G, Castelluccia N, Colombi N, Capizzi I, Pani A, Todros T, Avagnina P.
Il ferro nei vegetali è legato all'ossalato che lo rende NON ASSORBIBILE dal corpo umano e al fitato (l'inositolo esafosfato), che ne inibisce la dissociazione ad opera delle reazioni chimiche gastrointestinali, e quindi l'assorbimento. ^ a b c d L'assorbimento del ferro
2.^ Food Group, Division of Animal and Food Sciences, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand, Noonan SC, Savage GP, Oxalate content of foods and its effect on humans, vol. 8, nº 1, 1999, pp. 64-74, PMID 24393738.
3.^ Influence of Vegetable Protein Sources on Trace Element and Mineral Bioavailability, The American Society for Nutritional Sciences.
4.^ Committee on Food Protection, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council, Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods, National Academy of Sciences, ISBN 978-0-309-02117-3.
Dietary factors including ascorbic acid and an elusive factor in animal protein foods (meat; fish and poultry) enhance iron absorption; while phytic acid; soy protein; calcium and polyphenols inhibit iron absorption. However; the effects of these dietary factors on iron absorption do not necessarily translate into an association with iron status and iron stores (serum ferritin concentration). In cross-sectional studies; only meat intake has consistently (positively) been associated with higher serum ferritin concentrations.
FONTE: Nutrients. 2014 Sep 19;6(9):3747-76. doi: 10.3390/nu6093747.
Dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency for young women living in industrialized countries: a review.
Beck KL1, Conlon CA2, Kruger R3, Coad J4.
Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. Cordain L, Toohey L, Smith MJ, Hickey MS Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83(3):207-17.
Effect of dietary phytic acid on zinc absorption in the healthy elderly, as assessed by serum concentration curve tests. Couzy F, Mansourian R, Labate A, Guinchard S, Montagne DH, Dirren H. Br J Nutr. 1998 Aug;80(2):177-82.
The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HP, Becker K. Br J Nutr. 2002 Dec;88(6):587-605. Review.
A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability. Gibson RS, Bailey KB, Gibbs M, Ferguson EL. Food Nutr Bull. 2010 Jun;31(2 Suppl):S134-46. Review.
Soy protein, phytate, and iron absorption in humans. Hurrell RF, Juillerat MA, Reddy MB, Lynch SR, Dassenko SA, Cook JD. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Sep;56(3):573-8.
Food poisoning from raw red kidney beans. Noah ND, Bender AE, Reaidi GB, Gilbert RJ. Br Med J. 1980 Jul 19;281(6234):236-7.
Dietary lectins are metabolic signals for the gut and modulate immune and hormone functions. Pusztai A. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1993 Oct;47(10):691-9. Review.
Autism: transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents. Román GC. J Neurol Sci. 2007 Nov 15;262(1-2):15-26. Epub 2007 Jul 24. Review.
Wertz AE, Wynn K. – Thyme to touch: infants possess strategies that protect them from dangers posed by plants – Cognition. 2014 Jan;130(1):44-9